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Pythagoras
One of the arguments used by anti-masons to support their claim that Freemasonry is satanic is to refer to the masonic use of the pentagram. The short answer to this accusation is that the pentagram has no masonic significance, is not a masonic symbol, and is not mentioned in any published masonic ritual.
THE BAPHOMET
THE PENTAGRAM
ANTI-MASONRY FAQ
NOTES ON THE TEMPLARS
CHRONOLOGY OF SUPPRESSION
ANTI-MASONRY REFUTED
PENTAGRAM IN FILM
PENTAGRAM IN POP CULTURE
.
The pentagram,
Notes, citations and references
LUCIFER | VENUS | SATAN’s SYMBOL | ÉLIPHAS LEVI | ALEISTER CROWLEY
What is
the pentagram?
1. Oxford English Dictionary (1984) cites Chapman , 1594; H. Moore, 1664; Casaubon, 1672. ^
2. Henry Lincoln, The Holy Place. Arcade, New York: 1991. ^
3. Arthur Charles Fox-Davies, The Art of Heraldry, An Encyclopaedia of Armory. Arno Press, New York: 1976 [1904] LCC 65-56481. pp. 228-230. ^
4. Éliphas Lévi. Dogma and Ritual of High Magic ii. p.55. [f.7.] Also see: Sexuality, Magic and Perversion, Francis King. New English Library, Times Mirror. 1972. 174 p. p. 156 : "Some of these miraculous hosts [Vintras' The Work of Mercy at Tilly] were examined by the French magician Eliphas Levi. He announced that the holy symbols were upside down (e.g. the pentagram had two points, instead of one, pointing upwards) and on this basis claimed that the alleged miracles were the result of diabolical origin. He failed to explain, however, how on a circular host it was possible to tell which way up the symbols were supposed to be!" ^
5. Solomon’s Seal, from stone synagogue, Capernaum. Miller, Madeleine S.; Miller, J. Lane: Harper’s Bible Dictionary. New York: Harper & Row, , 1961. p. 713. [Site info: (Tell Hum) North end Sea of Galilee, West of entrance 3rd century CE] p. 33. Also see de Vogal, plate IV ^
6. Detail of robe worn by the god Marduk on a piece of lapis lazuli; from Babylon, middle of ninth century. (523, ANEP) Berlin Museum. James B. Pritchard, (Ed.) The Ancient Near East, Volume I : A New Anthology of Texts and Pictures. Princeton and London: Princeton University Press, 1973, ISBN: 0691002002 (pbk), fig. 141, unnumbered picture section. [Abridged from Princeton U. Press' Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old testament (ANET) Copyright 1950, 1955 and The Ancient Near East in Pictures Relating to the Old testament (ANEP) Copyright 1954. ^
7. Man, Myth & Magic. vol. 77. Richard Cavendish, ed. Purnell for BPC Publishing Ltd., London: 1971. p. 2159. ^
What does
the pentagram
mean?
1. Cornelia J. de Vogel, Pythagoras and Early Pythagoreanism, An Interpretation of Neglected Evidence on the Philosopher Pythagoras. Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 1966. [note Appendix A, pp. 292-7], E. Douglas Van Buren [Elizabeth], Symbols of the gods in Mesopotamian art. Roma: Pontificium institutum biblicum, 1945. xvi, 191 p. illus. 30 x 24 cm. LCCN: 46003254., Beatrice Laura Goff, Symbols of Prehistoric Mesopotamia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. [ p. 76ff, figs. 316, 339, 464] ^
2. No depiction of five-pointed star or pentagram found in: P.R.S. Mooney, Ur 'of the Chaldees.' A Revised and Updated Edition of Sir Leonard Wooley Excavations at Ur. Cornwell University Press, Ithaca, New York: 1982. ISBN: 0-8014-1518-7. Crawford, Harriet E. W. Sumer and the Sumerians. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Boris B. Piotrovsky, Ururtu. trans. James Hogarth, Barrie & Rockliff, The Cresset Press, London: 1969 © Nagel Publishers, Geneva. Eva Stornenger, 5000 Years of Art of Mesopotamia. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York: n.d. trans. Christina Haglund 280 plates LCN 64-15231. André Parrot, Sumer; the Dawn of Art Golden Press, New York: 1965. trans. Stuart Gilbert and James Emons 416 illust. LCC 61-6746. ^
3.Burkert, Walter.Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.: 1972. Translated by Edwin L. Minar, Jr. ISBN: 0674539184. Translation of Weisheit und Wissenschaft, Studien zu Pythagoras, Philolaos und Platon. Cited:thornr.demon.co.uk/kchrist/pent.html ^
4. Albert Mackey. "Pentagram" Encyclopedia of Freemasonry. Richmond, Virginia: 1966.
"There is perhaps in all this some lingering notion of the association of the German word Drudenfuss with 'Druid'. Unjustly so. The word has nothing to do with the Druids, but with Drude: in Southern German and Austrian popular belief a Drude is a female ghost who causes nightmares." Cornelia J. de Vogel cites Bächtold-Stäubli, Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens VIII, col. 1173f. [p. 35.] ^
5. Thomas Inman, Ancient Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism. Corner House Publishers, Williamstown, Massachusetts: 1978, first published 1868, Liverpool. [p. 40]. ^
6. Gershom Scholem, [A collection of articles on the Kabbalah]. [S.l. : s.n., 1920-1955?]. 1v., various pagings ; 24cm. Contents: Collection of articles on the Kabbalah reprinted from various journals in Hebrew. ^
7. Obverse of a 60-as gold coin of the Republic (from the time of the Hannibalic invasion of Italy) Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage catalog number: RRC 105/2 ; 209 BCE. Weight standard of about 3.375 g, showing an eagle on thunderbolt, pentagram on right, ROMA below, only 1 obverse die known, probable mint Etruria. Koen Verboven, FSR Flanders Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. ^
8. The Beguine movement, and later Hildegard of Bingen (b. 1098, d. 1179), known for their healing and herbal remedies, were users of the pentagram as a religious symbol: Note: Ronald Hutton, The triumph of the moon : a history of modern pagan witchcraft. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1999. xv, 486 p. ; 25 cm., LCCN: 99031586. The pagan religions of the ancient British Isles : their nature and legacy Oxford, UK ; Cambridge, Mass. : B. Blackwell, c1991 (1992 printing). xvii, 397 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. LCCN: 90027166. ^
9.The geometric proportions of the Pentagram are those of the Golden Section, aurio sectio: golden mean. Found in much post-Hellenic architecture, the ratio of the lengths of the two sides is equal to the ratio of the longer side to the sum of the two sides. Or a/b = b/a+b = a+b/a+2b = a+2b/2a+3b = 2a+3b/3a+5b et cetara. If a square is added to the long side of a golden rectangle, a larger golden rectangle is formed. This ratio forms the foundation of the Fibonacci series of numbers 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144..., where each number is formed by adding the previous two numbers. The Fibonacci series can be found in nature, from the natural branching of rivers and lightning, to the spiral of our galaxy. ^
10."The Proto-cuneiform symbols NI + RU or UB are possible representations of the site’s ancient name. The UB sign, a five-pointed star, occurs on clay tablets, spindle whorls, a cylinder seal, and painted and incised pottery from the site." "Occupation commences in the Ubaid period (c. 4000BCE) and flourishes from 3,400 to 2,800 BCE, during the Late Uruk, Jemdet Nasr, and Early Dynastic I periods." R.J. Matthews. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Prepared under the auspices of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Vol 3. Ed. Eric M. Meyors. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN: 0-19-511217-2 (vol. 3). p. 212. See JEMDET NASR ^
11. Detail (20mm approx.): JEMDET NASR. Spindle whorl. Note the incised five-pointed star, the UB sign, a possible ancient representation of the name of Jemdet Nasr. From the 1926 excavation. Cited by: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Prepared under the auspices of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Vol 3. Ed. Eric M. Meyors. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN: 0-19-511217-2 (vol. 3) p. 212. See: UB. Note: Matthews, R.J. Cities, Seals, and Writing: Archaic Seal Impressions from Jemdet Nasr and Ur. Materialien zu den frühen Schriftzeugnissen des Vorderen Orients, vol. 2. Berlin, 1993. Full publication of the seal impressions on the clay tablets from Jemdet Nasr, with an analysis of their role within the administration and a discussion of "city name" seal impressions from Jemdet Nasr, Uruk, and Ur.^
12. Cornelia J. de Vogel, Pythagoras and Early Pythagoreanism. plate VI facing p. 293. From Allotte de la Fuÿe, "Le Pentagramme pythagoricien, sa diffusion, son emploi dans le syllabaire cunéiforme," in: Babyloniaca XIV, Paris 1934, Fig. 3. p. 18. ^
13. Cornelia J. de Vogel. p. 293.^
14. Examples shown in Cornelia J. de Vogel. plate II facing p. 34: British coin, 2nd cent. BCE, Gallic coins, 1st cent. BCE, denarii of L. Papius, c. 78 BCE. Citing: J. Lelewel, Type Gaulois ou Celtique, Atlas, Bruxelles 1840, pl. VIII nr. 29; J. Lelewel, pl. IV nr 5, pl. VII nr. 3; E. Lambert, Essai sur la Numismatique gauloise, Paris 1844, pl. IX nr. 31.^
15. Cornelia J. de Vogel. plate Va facing p. 43, citing Robert Eisler, Weltenmantel u. HimmelszeltI, München 1910, vol I, p. 306, fig. 40. Museo Gregoriano, prima ediz., parte seconda, tav. XC.^
16. Cornelia J. de Vogel. p. 38. "The pentagram belongs to the symbols that represent the builders: it occurs together with such symbols as the base of a column, a Corinthian capital, plaster’s float, trowel and builder’s square." Citing: Sydenham, Numismatic Chronicle, 1931. Brit. Mus., Catal. Greek Coins, Italy, p. 59, nr. 29; Haeberlin, Aes grave, pl. 68, nrs 20-22 and 32; Syndenham, Aes grave, p. 103, nr. 117, pl. 13, 7.^
17. Cornelia J. de Vogel. p. 34. Gold coin with pentagrams found in south England "first half of second century B.C." John Evans. The coins of the ancient Britons, London: 1864. p. 98 reproduction on pl. E. nr. 14; Silver coins with pentagrams found in Gaul 1st cent. B.C. Ref. I 2, p. 14 Dunker-Schneidewin.^
18. Cornelia J. de Vogel. p. 156. "...on the basis of a passage in Lucianus we may assume that it was nothing other than the pentagram, which according to this text Pythagoreans had as a symbol of recognition, and they used it in their letters as a symbol of health." [Lucianus: Jacobitz I, p. 330, Rabe p. 234, 21.]^
19. Cornelia J. de Vogel. pp. 45-6. "What is new in the Post-renaissance period is the use of the pentagram as a medical symbol. It appears as such in the arms of a doctors' guild and, from the 16th century onwards, on the Pharmacopea. On an engraving of the Dutch humanist Coornhert, nowadays in the Museum of Gouda, Sanitas appears with three medical emblems: the pentagram, the urinal and the crane. In the same museum the room of the guild of surgeons is open to visitors: among the furniture are two 18th century cushion-covers on which a pentagram is embroidered and a seventeenth century cabinet with a pentagram on it. Also the guild-glasses bear the sign of the pentagram. A number of similar instances might be cited. "
fn: "This is done in a recent study by Dr. J. Schouten, the author of a highly interesting iconological study on the staff of Asklepios (Amsterdam 1963). It is to him I owe the above mentioned data about the pentagram used as a symbol of health from the 16th century onwards. His paper on the pentagram as a medical symbol will be published in the Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek, Amsterdam 1965. It will include some very interesting material, on which nobody is more able to comment than he." ^
20. Note Harold Bayley, The Lost Language of Symbolism. London: Williams and Norgate, 1912, 1:257. ^
21. The Teen Spell Book, Magick for Young Witches, James Wood. Berkeley, California : Celestial Arts, 2001. p. 180-81. 292 pp. pb. with index. Also see "Pentagram: a five pointed figure that is used as a blessing." The Girls' Handbook of Spells, Antonia Beattie. Vancouver : Raincoast Books, 2001. ISBN: 1-55192-369-6. p. 78. 79 pp. hc. ^
22. Both Charles T. Brooks' 1856 translation and that of Bayard Taylor in 1870 translate "Drudenfuss" as wizard-foot with Brooks noting in a footnote that this was a pentagram or "pentagonal figure composed of three triangles." More properly speaking, a Drude is a female ghost who causes nightmares.^
Is the
pentagram
a Christian
symbol?
1. Hans Biedermann, Dictionary of Symbolism. Meridian, 1994 ^
2. F.R. Webber, Church Symbolism, An Explanation Of The More Important Symbols of the Old and New Testament, The Primative, The Mediaeval and The Modern Church Second edition, revised. Ornigraphics, Detroit: 1992 [first published J.H. Jensen, Cleveland: 1938.] pp. 26, 73, 382. ^
3. F. Edward Hulme, The History of Principles and Practices of Symbolism in Christian Art. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1969. p. 213. ^
4. Art texts showing multiple examples of eight pointed stars, occasional six pointed stars but no five-pointed stars or pentagrams: Émile Mâle, Religious Art in France; The Twelfth Century: A Study of the Origins of Medieval Iconography, Princeton University Press, New Jersey: 1978 ISBN 0-691-09912-X. Joan Eurs, Art in Mediaeval France 987-1498. Oxford: 1969. George Kaftel, Saints in Italian Art; Iconography of the Saints in the Paintings of North East Italy. Sansoni, Florence: 1978 [1342 p.]. Saints in Italian Art; Iconography of the Saints in the Paintings of Central and South Italy. Sansoni, Florence: 1965 [1426 p.]. Enio Sindona, Classici dell' Arte, 81; L'Opera Completa di Camabue e ál Momento Figoratiro Pregiottesco. Rizzoli Editore, Milano: 1975. George Zarnecki, Art of the Medieval World, Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, The Sacred Arts. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey: 1975. ISBN 0-13-04-7514-9. Andrew Martindale, Gothic Art. Thames é Hudon Ltd., London: 1993 [1967] 206 illust. Frederick Beuchner, The Faces of Jesus. Riverside/Simon and Schuster, New York: 1974. ISBN 671-21895-6. Michael Gough, The Origins of Christian Art. Thames and Hudson, London; 1973. ISBN 0 500 18137 3 ^
5. Twentieth century authors claiming Christian usage without citation or example: Becker, ed., Lance W. Garmer, Trans. "Pentagram," The Continuum Encyclopedia of Symbols, Continuum, New York: 1994, p. 230. George Ferguson, Signs and Symbols in Christian Art. Oxford University Press, New York: 1966, p. 59. Charles Lehman, Signs of Christ; A Book of Clip Art. Sheed & Ward, Kansas City: 1995. p. 57 [a service of the National Catholic Reporter Publishing Company] ISBN: 1-55612-822-3. Sister M.A. Justina Knapp, Christian Symbols and How To Use Them. The Bruce Publishing Company, Milwaukee: 1955. Plate LXV, Plate LV [Imprimatur, Jos. F. Busch, Bishop of St. Cloud.]. Fredrick Rest, Our Christian Symbols, Christian Education Press, Philadelphia: 1954. The Revell Bible Dictionary. Fleming H. Revell Co., New Jersey: 1990. ISBN: 0800715942, 1156 p., p. 659. ^
6. Thorvi Eckhardt. Icons of Angels and Prophets. Aurel Bongers, Recklinghausen, West Germany: 1967. trans. Hermann Rosenwald. p. 44. Undated, possibly 11th century: one of the earliest Benedictine monasteries was built in 852 near Split. Asclepius was a Greco-Roman god of medicine; his usual attribute was a staff with a serpent coiled around it (not to be confused with the caduceus of Hermes or Mercury).View a larger photo. ^
7. Luther Link, The Devil, The Archfiend in Art, From the Sixth to Sixteenth Century. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York: 1996. ISBN 0-8109-3226. ^
8. The Sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt, Edited by Theodore Bowie. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1959 LCCN: 68-14615. Facsimile of the Sketch-book of Wilars de Honecort... published by M. Alfred Darcel from the MS. of M. J.B.A. Lassus... translated, edited and augmented... by the Rev. Robert Willis. London, John Henry and James Parker, 1859. MS. 19093 French Collection, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris [No. 1104 Library of Saint-Germain-des Prés until c.1800] ^
9. Illustration of a fragment of a 5th Century BCE jar handle with a seal impression of a pentagram with the Hebrew letters YRSLM (Jerusalem), Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Cited by: thornr.demon.co.uk/kchrist/pent.html. Reproduced from de Vogel’s plate III facing p. 41, showing 12 examples, no uniform alignment. Citing David Diringer, Le iscrizioni antico-ebraiche Palestinesi, Firenze 1934, pp. 130-132 and plate XVI, 3-12. Found in Jerusalem Museum Catal. nrs 1114, 3562, 3563, 3624. ^
10. Cornelia J. de Vogel. p. 45. "Here in late Antiquity we are undoubtedly at the roots of the pentagram as a magic symbol in the Middle Ages: it was put on utensils and on buildings, on the doors of cow-sheds, in churches and on the gates of castles."
fn: "A good example of the pentagram on churchdoors was mentioned to me by Dr. J. Schouten, director of the municipal musea at Gouda. It is in the Romanesque church in Trauthain (near Leipzig), where a pentagram is found on the capital to the right of the door. The case of the cathedral of Rouen, which I found mentioned in an encyclopedia article, seems to be less clear. Mr. A. Bloch, who kindly gave me some information, is rather hesitating about it. ^
11. Rev. John William Horsley "Solomon’s Seal and the Shield of David Traced to Their Origins," Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. pp. 51-8. "It is indented, I notice, on the gate posts of the churchyard of S. Peter’s, Walworth, which was built by Sir John Soane (who was a Mason and the first Grand Superintendent of Works) in 1824. Here it would from its position be suggestive rather of its mediaeval and later use as a talisman against fire." [p. 52.] ^
12. Ernst Lehner, Symbols, Signs, and Signets. New York: World Publishing, 1950, "Seal and amulet of Emperor Constantine I", p. 582. [Bibliography] ^
13. See "The five-pointed star of Bethlehem", p. 108, Ernst Lehner, Symbols, Signs, and Signets. New York: World Publishing, 1950. Amiens Cathedral (1220 - 1410 BCE), noted in Martin Hûrlimann, French Cathedrals (New York: Viking Press, 1967. p. 149. Marktkirche steeple, Hanover, Germany (c.1500), noted in Christian Norberg-Shulz, The Concept of Dwelling: On the Way to Figurative Architecture New York: Rizzoli, 1985, p. 74. Chartres Cathedral (c. 1150 BCE), "Berthold Missal" Benedictine Abbey, Weingarten Germany (1200 - 1232 BCE), noted in Revell Bible Dictionary Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell, 1990. p. 659; Gertrud Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art. Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society, 1971. p. 1, plate 271. Inverted nativity star in the sculpted capital of a cloister pillar (12th C.) noted in Yves Christe, et. al., Art of the Christian World, A.D. 200-1500: A Handbook of Styles and Forms. New York: Rizzoli, 1982, p. 346. Paintings in Greek and Russian Orthodox churches, illustrating the Mount of Transfiguration, depicting Jesus Christ standing before a large, inverted five-pointed star, some with an elongated bottom ray, noted in Leonid Ouspensky and Vladimir Lossky, The Meaning of Icons. Boston, Massachusetts: Boston Book and Art Shop, 1952. p. 213; Engelina Smirnova, Moscow Icons: 14th-17th Centuries. Oxford: Phaidon, 1989, fig. 121; V. N. Lazarev, Moscow School of Icon Painting. Moscow: Ishkusstvo, 1971. figs. 25, 48. ^
14. See Martin Hürlimann, French Cathedrals. New York: Viking Press, 1967, p. 149 for Amiens Cathedral; Christian Norberg-Shulz, The Concept of Dwelling: On the Way to Figurative Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1985, p. 74 for Marktkirche; Gertrud Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art. Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society, 1971, 1, plate 271 for Weingarten; Yves Christe, et. al., Art of the Christian World, A.D. 200-1500: A Handbook of Styles and Forms. New York: Rizzoli, 1982, p. 346; Leonid Ouspensky and Vladimir Lossky, The Meaning of Icons. Boston, Massachusetts: Boston Book and Art Shop, 1952, p. 213; Engelina Smirnova, Moscow Icons: 14th-17th Centuries. Oxford: Phaidon, 1989, figure 121; V. N. Lazarev, Moscow School of Icon Painting. Moscow: Ishkusstvo, 1971 for Orthodox paintings. ^
Is the
pentagram a
masonic
symbol?
1. Albert Mackey. Encyclopedia of Freemasonry. Richmond, Virginia: 1966. p. 763, 303. ^
2. George Godwin, London Society of Antiquarians. noted in Mackey p. 626. ^
Is the
pentagram
with two points
ascendant a
symbol for
Satan?
1. Éliphas Lévi Transcendental magic, its doctrine and ritual. trans. Arthur Edward Waite Dogme et rituel de la haute magic New York, S. Weiser: 1970 438p illus. ii, p. 55 ^
2. Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa: scheme of human proportion from De occulta philosophia, 1533. Reproduced in plates following p. 230, Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh, The Elixir and the Stone, ISBN: 0-670-86218-5. Also see: Aleistar Crowley. Magick in Theory and Practice(Book 4, part 3), Liber V vel Reguli. Castle Books, Secaucus, New Jersey: c1991 ISBN 1555217664. ^
3. Manly Palmer Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages : an encyclopedic outline of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic an Rosicrucian symbolical philosophy : being an interpretation of the secret teachings concealed within the rituals, allegories and mysteries of all ages. New York : Jeremy P. Tarcher / Penguin, 2003. ISBN : 1-58542-250-9 pp. 326-27. Copyright 1928-2003 Philosophical Research Society. ^
Is there
a link between
Satan and
Lucifer?
1. Roger Bacon (1214? - 1294),The Opus Majus of Roger Bacon, "Causes of Error", Ch. VI. trans. Robert Belle Burke. H. Milford, Oxford University Press, London: 1928. 2v. based on the corrected text of Bridges' edition, London, 1900. ^
Is there
a link between
the pentagram
and Venus?
1. Fragment of 4th Century BCE jar handle with a seal impression of a pentagram with the hebrew letters YRSLM (Jerusalem), Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Cited by: thornr.demon.co.uk/kchrist/pent.html. ^

Additional illustrations

Colonel Allotte de la Fuÿe in Le Pentagramme Pythagoricien, notes five cuneiform impressions of the pentagram taken from Fara, Sargon and Gudea.
Mediaeval and Renaissance authors of hermetic manuscripts and texts made use of a large number of figures, sigils, seals and designs based on the iconography of alchemy, astrology, magic squares and something called the "cabbalah of nine chambers", described in detail in Mather’s introduction to Kabbalah Unveiled and Dr. Israel Regardie’s Golden Dawn. The pentagram does not appear to have been a central theme or image, being restricted mainly to a warding device.
The Lemegeton(Sloane MS. 2731, British Museum) including Goetia, Theurgia-Goetia, Ars Paulina, Ars Almadel and Ars Nova, uses the pentagram in only three out of two hundred diagrams. The Greater Key of Solomon, with a chapter on "The Holy Pentacles", defines a pentacle as any circular figure used in magic. Of 54 figures, only two representations of pentagrams are incorporated into the designs, while Fig. 3, "A Circle for the Consecration of Pentacles," incorporates four representations of pentagrams, two points facing into a circle.
There are no pentagrams found in The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage(1655), Robert Turner’s 1657 edition of The Ars Notoria - The Notary Art of Solomon; The Fourth Book of Occult Philosophy(1654), (Robert Turner’s 1650s collection: Of Geomancy and Of Occult Philosophy, attributed to Agrippa; Isagoge by Georg Pictorius Villinganus; On Astronomical Geomancy by Gerard Cremonensis; and The Arbatel of Magictranslated by Robert Turner in 1655; The Hieroglyphic Monad(1564) by Dr. John Dee, The Rosicrucian Manifestos: Fama Fraternitatis(1615) and Confessio Fraternitatis(1616); nor The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. Robert Fludd’s Atque technica historia uses an illustration of a male figure inside concentric rings on the cover, but no pentagram. John Dee included a pentagram, one point up, in a seal designed in wax, now in the British Museum, but does not include any pentagram in a similar gold disc. Heptameron(1657) or, Magical Elements, attributed to Peitro de Abano, includes a figure on page 9 incorporating four outlined five-pointed stars.

Appendix 1, detailing the few examples available is found at <freemasonry.bcy.ca/anti-masonry/pentagrams_additional.html>

Agrippa Selected bibliography
Agrippa, Henry Cornelius, (b. 1486, d. 1535) Three books of occult philosophy / written by Henry Cornelius Agrippa ; translated out of the Latin into the English tongue by J. F [J. Freake? or John French?] 2nd enl. ed. London : Chthonios, 1987, c1986 [x, [12], 583 p : ill ; 22 cm] ISBN 0948366079 [Facsimile of ed. published: London: Gregory Moule, 1651 Translation of: De occulta philosophia]. ^
Allman, George Johnston. (1889). Greek Geometry From Thales to Euclid, Dublin: Hodges, Figgis & Co. ^
Chasles, Par M. (1875). Apercu Historique sur l'Origine et Developpment des Methodes en Geometrie, 2nd ed. Paris: Gauthier-Villars. ^
Fuÿe, Colonel Allotte de la. "Le Pentagramme pythagoricien, sa diffusion, son emploi dans le syllabaire cunéiforme," in: Babyloniaca XIV, Paris 1934, Reproduction of handwritten manuscript, Versailles, May 1, 1930. 56 pp.. ^
Koch, Rudolph. Book of Signs, The Dover Publications, Inc., New York; 1955, reprint of 1930; ISBN 0486201627; LOC 55-2433; pp 6/104 ^
Liungman, Carl G.. 1994. Dictionary of SymbolsEnglish translation of Symboler--västerländska ideogram. 1974. Norton & Company, Inc: New York [pp. 333-338] ISBN 0-393-31236-4 ^
Scholem, Gershom. [A collection of articles on the Kabbalah]. [S.l. : s.n., 1920-1955?]. 1v., various pagings ; 24cm. Contents: Collection of articles on the Kabbalah reprinted from various journals in Hebrew. ^
Schouten, J. (Jac). The pentagram as a medical symbol : an iconological study; translated from the Dutch by M.E. Hollander. Nieuwkoop : B. de Graaf, 1968. [100 p. with illus ; 24 cm] ^
Vogel, C. J. de (Cornelia J. de). Pythagoras and early Pythagoreanism : an interpretation of neglected evidence on the philosopher Pythagoras. Wijsgerige teksten en studies. Assen : Van Gorcum, 1966 [323 p : plates (incl. facsims.) ; 25 cm [source of Fara image] ^

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