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MASONIC BIOGRAPHIES
FAMOUS FREEMASONS
Francesco Crispi
[Francesco Crispi]
October 4, 1819 - August 12, 1901
Twentieth Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy (December 15, 1893 - March 10, 1896), Crispi was among the key figures in the Italian Risorgimento, a close friend and supporter of Mazzini and Garibaldi, and one of the architects of Italy's unification in 1860. Implicated in the Mazzini conspiracy at Milan in 1853, in 1860 he, alongside Giuseppe Garibaldi, led the "expedition of the thousand" which disembarked on Sicily on 11 May 1860. On 13 May, Crispi drew up the Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy.
Crispi acquired the reputation of being the most aggressive and most impetuous member of the republican party. In 1864, however, he announced he was a monarchist. In 1876 he was elected President of the Chamber.
Although he began life as a revolutionary and democratic figure, his premiership was authoritarian and he showed disdain for Italian liberals.
Raised : November 13, 1860
I Rigeneratori del 12 gennaio 1848 al 1860 Garibaldini Lodge, Palermo (Grand Orient)

Source : Francesco Crispi, 1818-1901: From Nation to Nationalism, Christopher Duggan. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0198206119. p. 275. fn. cites MRR, b.660, fasc. 14, certificate of admission. Also see Bulletin of International Masonic Congress, 1917.

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